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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the center of which is a 20-meter (22-yard) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player (so they are "out"). Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground. When ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches. They communicate with two off-field scorers who record the match's statistical information.Cricket has close historical ties with Australian rules football and many players have competed at top level in both sports.[1] The Melbourne Football Club was founded the following year, 1859, and cricketers founded the Melbourne Cricket Club (MCC) in 1838.[2] Test cricket, which originated in England, was introduced to Australia in 1877.[3] The first Test match played was between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in March 1877.The popularity of cricket grew throughout the 19th century with the expansion of the British Empire, and the game was exported to many countries. The first overseas tour by an English team occurred in 1859, when a team led by George Parr toured Australia.[4]Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that basically involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement; others include baseball, golf, hockey, tennis, squash, badminton and table tennis.[5] In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket (originally, it is thought, a "wicket gate" through which sheep were herded), that the batsman must defend.[6] The cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets (the goals); the "golf group", in which the ball is driven towards an undefended target (the hole); and the "cricket group", in which "the ball is aimed at a mark (the wicket) and driven away from it".[7]According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest known specific reference to cricket is in a court case recording a "cricketing" of two men in Kent in 1533.[8]Cricket is generally believed to have originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period.[9] Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597 (Julian calendar; equating to Thursday, 27 January 1598 in the Gregorian calendar). The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies".[10][11]Derrick's testimony does not explicitly state that the game was known as "cricket" at the time, but it is generally agreed that it was. In 1611, a court case referred to it as "cricket".[12][13] Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey.[14]The view that it was originally a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket".[15][16]According to the social historian Derek Birley, there was a "great upsurge of sport after the Restoration" in 1660.[17] Gambling on sport became a problem significant enough for Parliament to pass the 1664 Gambling Act, limiting stakes to £100 which was, in any case, a colossal sum exceeding the annual income of 99% of the population.[18] Along with prizefighting, horse racing and blood sports, cricket was perceived to be a gambling sport.[19] Rich patrons made matches for high stakes, forming teams in which they engaged the first professional players.[20]Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and, in the middle years of the century, large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury.[21] The single wicket form of the sport attracted huge crowds and wagers to match, its popularity peaking in the 1748 season.[22] Bowling underwent an evolution around 1760 when bowlers began to pitch the ball instead of rolling or skimming it towards the batsman. This caused a revolution in bat design because, to deal with the bouncing ball, it was necessary to introduce the modern straight bat in place of the old "hockey stick" shape.[23][24]The Hambledon Club was founded in the 1760s and, for the next 20 years until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in 1787, Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point.[25] MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and leg before wicket (lbw).[26]Between 1787 and 1837, cricket of varying types was played by cross-classified teams in which the personnel would change as the match progressed. This was partly due to the increasing importance of notional strength of the batting side vis-à-vis the bowling side. With the advent of first-class cricket in 1828, the concept of a team representing a single cricket club or "county" became more common.[27]Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played on a cricket field (see image, right) between two teams of eleven players each.[58] The field is usually circular or oval in shape and the edge of the playing area is marked by a boundary, which may be a fence, part of the stands, a rope, a painted line or a combination of these; the boundary must if possible be marked along its entire length.[59]There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, which is a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a slightly raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core which is layered with tightly wound string.The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals.There are two types of innings in cricket, the first of which is the batting innings. A batting innings lasts until the batsmen have all been dismissed or the captain declares the innings closed, whichever comes first. The innings terminates if the batting team is "all out", a term defined by the Laws: "at the fall of a wicket or the retirement of the last batsman, the innings is closed". In this case, the batsmen do not come out to bat again and their innings total is recorded. The second type of innings is the bowling innings, in which the bowling team tries to dismiss the batsmen. Once the bowling team has finished its innings, the teams swap roles and the batting team comes in to bat.When a team bats, its goal is to score as many runs as possible, thereby increasing its innings total. A run is scored when the batsman hits the ball with his bat and the ball crosses the boundary of the playing area. It is also possible to score runs by hitting the ball to the boundary without the ball actually crossing the boundary, which is known as a boundary four or a boundary six.The batting team continues to bat until it is "all out". This can happen in one of two ways:The batsmen have all been dismissed, in which case the innings is over.The captain of the batting team decides to declare the innings closed, in which case the innings is closed at that point and the batting team's innings total is recorded.The bowling team tries to dismiss the batsmen by bowling balls at them and having them hit their stumps (the three vertical posts at the back of the batsman's crease). If the ball hits the batsman's body instead of his bat, and he is not wearing protective equipment, this is known as being hit wicket and he is out. If the ball hits the bat but does not dislodge the bails from the stumps, the batsman is not out. If the ball is caught by a fielder before it hits the ground, the batsman is out.A batsman can also be out if he hits his wicket with his bat, runs out of his crease while the ball is being bowled (a run out) or if he obstructs a fielder.Once all the batsmen are out, the innings is over and the teams swap roles. The bowling team becomes the batting team and vice versa. The new batting team bats until it is all out or the captain declares the innings closed.The aim of the bowling team is to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. If the batting team is all out, the bowling team wins. If the batting team scores more runs than the bowling team, the batting team wins.Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played on a cricket field (see image, right) between two teams of eleven players each.[58] The field is usually circular or oval in shape and the edge of the playing area is marked by a boundary, which may be a fence, part of the stands, a rope, a painted line or a combination of these; the boundary must if possible be marked along its entire length.[59]There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, which is a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a slightly raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core which is layered with tightly wound string.The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals.There are two types of innings in cricket, the first of which is the batting innings. A batting innings lasts until the batsmen have all been dismissed or the captain declares the innings closed, whichever comes first. The innings terminates if the batting team is "all out", a term defined by the Laws: "at the fall of a wicket or the retirement of the last batsman, the innings is closed". In this case, the batsmen do not come out to bat again and their innings total is recorded. The second type of innings is the bowling innings, in which the bowling team tries to dismiss the batsmen. Once the bowling team has finished its innings, the teams swap roles and the batting team comes in to bat.When a team bats, its goal is to score as many runs as possible, thereby increasing its innings total. A run is scored when the batsman hits the ball with his bat and the ball crosses the boundary of the playing area. It is also possible to score runs by hitting the ball to the boundary without the ball actually crossing the boundary, which is known as a boundary four or a boundary six.The batting team continues to bat until it is "all out". This can happen in one of two ways:The batsmen have all been dismissed, in which case the innings is over.The captain of the batting team decides to declare the innings closed, in which case the innings is closed at that point and the batting team's innings total is recorded.The bowling team tries to dismiss the batsmen by bowling balls at them and having them hit their stumps (the three vertical posts at the back of the batsman's crease). If the ball hits the batsman's body instead of his bat, and he is not wearing protective equipment, this is known as being hit wicket and he is out. If the ball hits the bat but does not dislodge the bails from the stumps, the batsman is not out. If the ball is caught by a fielder before it hits the ground, the batsman is out.A batsman can also be out if he hits his wicket with his bat, runs out of his crease while the ball is being bowled (a run out) or if he obstructs a fielder.Once all the batsmen are out, the innings is over and the teams swap roles. The bowling team becomes the batting team and vice versa. The new batting team bats until it is all out or the captain declares the innings closed.betting cricket odds
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